BLACK HOLES

A black hole is a place where the matter gets pulled in a dense tiny space. Its gravitational pull is so strong that it doesn’t allow even light to escape. It is basically formed when a star is dying and has used all of its fuel. It pulls every object that comes in the radius of the Event Horizon of that Hole. After living the life of billions of years eventually the star starts contracting due to empty nuclear fuel and a uniform spherically star would contract to a single point of infinite density. At this point, there is no prediction of future which implies that anything strange could happen when a star collapse. You can throw any damn thing like a cycle, skateboard, or your angry neighbour inside the black hole but all that thing will remember is the total mass, the state of rotation and electric charge.

TERM BLACK HOLE

The term ‘Black Hole‘ was introduced by an American scientist John Wheeler in 1967 which replaced the earlier term ‘frozen star’. The name gained popularity quickly as it indicated a dark and mysterious thing. He is also known for describing the principle ‘a black hole has no hair’. He co-authored his first article on nuclear fission in 1939 along with Niels Bohr.

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THE FORMATION OF BLACK HOLE

Stars are basically a collection of hydrogen atoms that collapsed under their own gravity from enormous gas clouds. Stars support themselves against its own gravity by thermal pressure which converts hydrogen to helium. The energy produced from this process is radiation that pushes against gravity helping to balance between two forces. As long as there is fusion in the core the star will be stable enough maintaining both Gravity and Radiation. But, The stars with huge mass are able to fuse heavier elements than hydrogen-like helium, carbon, neon, oxygen till iron because once the process reaches iron it stops generating energy and it reaches a critical amount to disturb the balance between the above two factors. As a result, the core collapses and star implodes. Moving at about a quarter of the speed of light, feeding more mass inside and the star either turns to a neutron star or if it is magnanimous than gets turned into a Black Hole.

NASA describes stars as pressure cookers in which nuclear fusion creates outward pressure that is constrained by gravity pulling everything inwards.

The surface area of the event horizon expands with the increase in the amount of the matter that falls inside the hole. It is not yet clear that what is the exact scenario inside that hole because no one has ever experienced a trip inside that black monster but it is for sure that all the matter which gets inside it doesn’t cross the point of singularity. The concept of singularity has been a defining theme in Stephen Hawking’s career. It is not limited to the death of a star but also a far more fundamental idea about starting-point for the formation of the entire Universe.

PREDICTIONS

Although we have not much idea of what inside that black monster but there are some predictions that if you cross a black hole what are the possibilities.

To escape from falling inside the event horizon you must be travelling with more speed than light which is not possible till now and maybe in near future too. After you get near to the event horizon the gravitational pull will start to increase at a rapid rate till the moment you fall inside. Once you dive inside possibilities are you will be torn from every side and demon of death will carry you to the hell! or if you fall into a larger black hole there are some chances that you will survive for sometime after reaching inside and you will feel everything passing in a slow motion till you reach the point of singularity where that demon will love to meet you.

But, Its not like black holes are like vacuum cleaners that pull all the things inside. Suppose if our sun turns into a black hole although it is very small to form a black hole, in that case, all the thing will remain almost same and planets will be revolving around a black hole and We will be frozen to death.

EXISTENCE

There are massive black holes that have been feeding on billions of years. They are present at the heart of every galaxy, Milky way has the one called Sagittarius A. They also emit particles and radiation at a steady rate like a hot body with a temperature that is proportional to its surface gravity and inversely proportional to mass. To understand this just remember that whole space is filled with pairs of virtual particles and antiparticles which are constantly materializing in pairs, separating and both coming together again and annihilating each other. These particles are called ‘virtual’ because unlike real particles they cannot be observed with a particle detector.

In the pressure of a black hole, one member of a pair may fall into the hole and may escape to infinity where it appears to be radiation by the black hole. A black hole of the mass of the sun would leak particles at the rate that the process is impossible to detect. Completing the Hawking radiation cycle in which radiation from the black hole increases as there size decrease and at last with a massive explosion everything disappears. It can take billions and billions of years.

THE INTERSTELLAR THEORY

According to the theory of Stephen Hawking, If a black hole is rotating and has a large size it might have a passage to another universe. It may not consist of a singularity in the sense of an infinitely dense point. Instead, there may be a singularity in the form of a ring. It leads to speculation about travelling through a black hole and not only falling into one. But, you can’t return back to our universe. According to him, black holes are not as black as they are painted and things can get out of it in this or possibly another universe.

CONCLUSION

Black holes can be described as a mysterious reality that has many secrets that we are unaware of. Luckily we don’t have any of them near us and there is no chance of witnessing one in near future. So, just chill and relax and as said above things do come out from a black hole so try to move out if you feel you are trapped in one.

 

Sources:

1.Stephen Hawking Black Holes (The BBC Reith Lectures)

2.https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/nasa-knows/what-is-a-black-hole-k4.html

3.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-P5IFTqB98

 

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